Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Effects Of Minimum Wages On Employment, By Benjamin...

Across the United States, many low skilled workers struggle to remain above the poverty line due to their small hourly wages. Some groups advocate for increased wages, but others oppose that idea because of the possibility of widespread job losses. Even though researchers have heavily analyzed the effects of a living wage in the past few years, experts claim that different kinds of studies are biased to support one viewpoint over the other. The articles â€Å"Living Wage Ordinances and Wages, Poverty, and Unemployment in US Cities,† by Benjamin Sosnaud, and â€Å"The Effects of Minimum Wages on Employment,† by David Neumark, analyze different studies about the effects of increasing the minimum wage to a living wage on a national scale. Neumark focuses his analysis mainly on different reasons why certain researchers are more biased than others. Sosnaud, on the other hand, takes studies from various cities with and without living wages from across the United States so he can compare them and draw his own conclusions about the true effects of raised wages. Even though Neumark’s points out how certain studies can be biased and invalid, Sosnaud’s evaluation of the issue based on a wide variety of research makes it very credible and gives readers a much clearer picture of nation-wide side effects. David Neumark’s article heavily criticizes different studies about minimum wage effects. He starts off the article with a quick summary of common theories. Those against wage increases believe

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

What Is The Relationship Between Memory And Emotions Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Different research has been conducted by different psychologists and scholars on this crucial subject, the result has shown that most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be those related to emotional events, which are often recalled frequently and with much clarity as compared to neutral events happening in our environment3. It should be understood that artificially inducing this instinct through traumatic physical or emotional stimuli has the potential to essentially create the same psychological condition that intensifies memory retention ability through exciting neuro-chemical activity, that affects the specific areas of the brain that concern with encoding and recalling memory. The effect that enhances memory has often demonstrated in a variety of laboratory studies by use of different kinds of stimuli that range from words to pictures, visual and audio-visual factors as well as autobiographic memory studies. Over the past century, there have been important advances in the field of psychology, in order to establish the relationship between memory and emotion. One of the important developments that have been witnessed is the growing recognition that there is a high number of memory systems that are directly governed by distinct and interacting neural substrates. We will write a custom essay sample on What Is The Relationship Between Memory And Emotions or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The main aim of these research activities has always been to find out any existing potential relationship between emotions and memory in human beings over their different activities of life. Different investigations that have been carried out on the influence of emotions on memory have tended to focus on two medial temporal lobe systems in the human brain. The first one is usually linked to amygdala; this one is more or less specialized in a certain way so that it only deals with the processing of different kinds of information that is encoded in the brain of a person. The hallmark of this memory system is that it is essential in the acquisition as well as expression of fear conditioning, in this process; a neutral stimulus acquires aversive properties by the virtue of having to be paired with an aversive event. The second system is that which is linked to the hippocampal complex, this one is necessary for the declarative or episodic memory, in some special cases, this kind of memory has often been thought of as a primary memory system in humans. This is because of the fact that it regulates and controls memory, that is, the process of recollection of various events that happened before at will.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Analysis Of Arachne And Minerva As A Didactic Work Of...

Crimes of Heaven: Defining â€Å"Arachne and Minerva† as a Didactic Work of Mythology An ancient prose narrative, all versions of â€Å"Arachne and Minerva† warn readers of the consequences facing those who disrespect the gods by recounting Athena’s actions when faced with mortal hubris. In studying prose narratives, William Bascom defined a valid myth as one: set in an earlier world, focused on a main character of a divine nature, and considered sacred and true by its original audience. Ovid’s â€Å"Arachne and Minerva† adheres to Bascom’s definition of a myth because it was viewed as a truthful account of the past, detailed the goddess Athena’s true process of addressing human disrespect, and focused the legitimate divine repercussions that follow†¦show more content†¦Bascom additionally notes that because they take place in an earlier time, a myth can, â€Å"...account for the origin†¦ of animals†¦ and the phenomena of nature,† (4). â€Å"Arachne and Minerva† takes an etiologically relates t he origin of spiders, created to curse Arachne, and explaining that they weave webs to remind her of her hubris (Sanan and van Loveren 153). For Bascom, a secondary qualification to be a valid myth is that, â€Å"their main characters are not usually human beings, but they often have human attributes, animals, deities, or culture heroes,† and here, Athena the goddess behaves like a person would (4). We see even the goddess of wisdom being prone to jealousy in Athena’s internal monologue, â€Å"‘To praise is not enough; I should have praise myself,’† proving even Athena can be affected by human hamartias like resentment (Ovid 1). Contrary to some religious ideals of an immaculate Demiurge, the Greek Pantheon mirrored the unpredictable nature of Greek society, and thus the gods had supernatural abilities paired with anthropomorphic personalities. This adds greater importance to Bascom’s criteria of deity characters with human attributes, because these trusted gods controlled lives of the Greek and Roman people, yet they were just as temperamental as humanity. Viewing the myth through a euhemeristic lens, it is even possible Arachne was a conceited weaver from a small

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How the Immune System Works Essay - 1951 Words

Most of the time nonspecific defenses keep pathogens from getting into the body. Sometimes one can break through and cause a disease. This is where the immune system comes into use. The immune system is the bodys third line of defense. It is a network of several tissues and white blood cells. The tissues of the immune system are bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and adenoids. The white blood cells of the immune system are called lymphocytes (Postlethwait Hopson, Modern Biology). The job of the immune system is to keep â€Å"foreign† invaders out of the body, or if one gets in, to seek it out and kill it. These foreign invaders are called pathogens, which are tiny organisms that can cause an infection in the body. Pathogens†¦show more content†¦Any substance the immune system can react with is called an antigen. Antigens cause lymphocytes to react. Many things can be classified as an antigen because it can be anything that is not normally in the body. These include: pathogens, bacterial toxins, insect venom, and pollen. There are two main places where a pathogen would be in the body. They would be in tissue spaces outside of a cell or intercellular within a host cell. The immune system has many different ways to deal with these pathogens. The reaction of the body against an antigen is called an immune response ( There are two parts to an immune response. They are the cell-mediated immune response and the humoral immune response. Both parts happen at the same time and both require a specialized lymphocyte called a helper T cells. Macrophages engulf pathogens, process them internally, then display parts of them on the surface of their own cell membrane together with some of their own proteins. When the macrophage binds to a helper T cell it releases a cytokine called interleukin-1. Cytokines are proteins that can affect the behavior of other immune cells. When interleukin-1 is released it activates more helper T cells, which then releases a second cytokine called interleukin-2. More than one type of T cell is used in the cell-mediated immune response. Interleukin-2 makes more helper T cells, that stimulates the further productionShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Functions of the Immune System926 Words   |  4 PagesImmune System Research Paper 1. EQ: How does the structure and function of my immune system keep me healthy? The structure and function of our immune systems is a great help for our body to keep all of us healthy. Our immune system has a specific structure that it should maintain. There are also organs that play a major part for the health of our immune system. These organs are called lymphoid organs because of the lymphocytes that inhabit that area. 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Immunity is the ability of a person to resist a specific infection or toxin by the action of particular antibodies or sensitized white blood cells. Both nutrition and exercise are key factors to a successful immune system. Additionally, the same type of relationship exists between the rightRead MoreThe Immune System Of The Human Body1257 Words   |  6 Pages Immune System Monica Salazar BIO1021 Dr. Kimberly Snead McDaniel South University Online We are examining the role the immune system plays within the general day to day operation of the human body. Further examination of the impaired immune system s profound negative impact on the whole body system, will also be delineated. The human body has structures and processes inside the body that defend against infection and additional harmful foreign bodies. When working appropriatelyRead MoreImmunology666 Words   |  3 Pagesallergies (Sompayrac, 2012, p.5). 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In order to function correctly, the immune system must be able to detect and distinguish an expansive variety of pathogensRead MoreCannabis Oil Works882 Words   |  4 PagesHow Cannabis Oil Works to Kill Cancer Cells ________________________________________ First lets look at what keeps cancer cells alive, then we will come back and examine how the cannabinoids CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) unravels cancers aliveness. In every cell there is a family of interconvertible sphingolipids that specifically manage the life and death of that cell. This profile of factors is called the Sphingolipid Rheostat. If endogenous ceramide(a signaling metaboliteRead MoreAnticancer Drugs : The Treatment Of Malignant Or Malignant Disease1642 Words   |  7 Pagesvariety of new techniques and challenges have been placed in the cases of cancer treatment. Some of these are- †¢ Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery †¢ Novel-metal based anticancer drugs †¢ Drug delivery system: entering the drug in mainstream †¢ Drug delivery system: lipid or polymer based nanoparticle or hydrogel. †¢ Combination therapy: opportunities and challenges for polymer- drug conjugation †¢ Nanoscale coordination polymers for platinum-based anticancer drug delivery †¢ MonoclonalRead MoreEssay on Immune System1568 Words   |  7 PagesHave you ever wondered how your body works? Did you ever think about how your body defends itself from outside invaders? Remember the last time you were sick. Did you know how your body fought and killed the sickness? All these questions can be answered by learning about one of the most important systems in your body, the immune system. Right now your immune system is at work. Think about it, millions of cells right now are at work inside you. It’s a complex system constantly on that keeps

Baptist Confessions Free Essays

This essay will consider the English Baptist-Separatist Confession of 1609 and the Mennonite-Dordrecht Confession of 1633. (M) and (B) are used to distinguish the two documents. These two confessions, or statements of belief, are separated by only 24 years in time, and a relatively short distance geographically, one in Holland and one in England, yet there are a number of differences. We will write a custom essay sample on Baptist Confessions or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was John Smyth, a former Anglican minister, who drew up the Separatist confession. He later sought to align his church more with the Mennonites and after his death many of his congregation did become Mennonites. Despite this he is considered to be a founding father of the Baptist denomination. During the reign of Elizabeth I death was the penalty in England for those holding Anabaptist beliefs according to the Reformed Reader web site. The other document tells us in its heading that it came out of the Dutch Mennonite conference held at Dordrecht . The Mennonites were Anabaptist followers of Menno Simons, a Dutch religious reformer and former Catholic priest who had died some 72 years earlier in 1561. Between 1530 and the1590’s some 2,000 believers died for their faith in Holland according to the Continental European Protestantism web page. They were officially tolerated from then on, but many refused to fight in wars on Holland’s part, and preferred to flee elsewhere, some to Poland and the Ukraine and other to America. So both these confessions came at a time when official persecution was lessening. First of all one is much briefer than the other. Although it has some 20 sections the Separatist confession has only short discourses under each heading and runs to less than 2 pages of foolscap, whereas the Mennonite document, although it has only 19 sections is very much longer and more detailed. It is one of many Mennonite statements of faith. A much shorter version can be found on modern day Mennonite web sites. The first 6 of its articles are concerned with things generally believed. Then come articles concerned with the life of the church and includes the sacraments of baptism and communion. Articles 13 (M) onwards are concerned more with legal matters such as the relationship between believers and the secular authorities. The final section consists of a declaration of 1659 made by London based Anabaptists and is a refutation of accusations that had been made against them. Rather than a statement of belief it emphasises what they don’t believe e. g. that though they do not themselves practise infant baptism they believe that others should be allowed to follow their own consciences as they would wish to. They state very strongly that they are opposed to the Quakers, but at the same time wish to be tolerant and allow them to practice freely as they believe. They do come out strongly against ‘popery’, whom they blame for many deaths. Although concerned with freedom of conscience they are anxious to let it be known that they will not support miscarriages of justice. This is in response to the fact that at the time of writing it Mennonites could be imprisoned simply for belonging to the group according to Cornelius Dyck in ‘An Introduction to Mennonite History’, pages 133 and 134. The Mennonites, although sticking to what they believe, are anxious to get on with rest of society. They have a section (13) (M) stating that God has allowed secular people to be in authority. In practice this means that though Mennonites will not go to war they will work under secular authorities in such areas as disaster relief and issues of social justice. Baptists too are concerned with such matters as in such organisations as the Baptist Missionary Society. The English Baptist statement spends a larger proportion of its text upon matters of faith and these are given priority. Only three articles, numbers 16-18, (B) are concerned with church business, i. e. who may dispense the word and the sacraments, how to deal with persistent sinners and how to interact with them in civil matters. The Mennonites also make statements of faith of course, but these are intermixed to some extent with such matters as the election of officers and dealing with sinners. On the latter subject the Mennonites are quite strict , referring to the separation from and the total shunning of reprobates, though they do put this in a positive light as being a way of making the person make amends and not in order to cause their destruction ( articles 16 and17 (M)). The Baptists are more pragmatic in their approach. They describe in article 17 (B) how to deal with those who persevere in their sins, but go on to say in the next article that such people are not to be avoided in worldly business. Regarding church practices an obvious difference is the inclusion of foot washing by the Mennonites, article 11,(M) which they felt was commanded by Christ in John 13 v 1- 15. They are one of several Christian groups throughout history who have practised this symbolic act, although it seems unlikely that it was included among the practices of the early church. The Baptists make no mention of marriage, despite the fact that many branches of the church consider it to be a sacrament. The Mennonites on the other hand state that it is God ordained and that St Paul allowed it within the church. (Article 12 (M)) They do state though that it should be between Christians who share common doctrine. In practice this means of course fellow Mennonites. Regarding Baptism the English Baptists make it very clear that it cannot be given to infants ( Article 14 (B)). The Mennonites in their confession ( Article 7 (M)) do not directly mention infants, but make it clear that it is for those who understand what they are doing and confess to faith, whereas this Baptist confession merely says that it is an external sign of the remission of sins, but makes no mention of public confession of faith. The Baptist confession describes its ministers as bishops and also mentions deacons and widows. (Article 16 (B)) It describes the church simply as ‘a company of the faithful’,( Article 12(B)) and gives the whole body authority to make decisions. ( article 13 (B)). The Mennonites refer to the church in much more elaborate language as the bride of Christ and the inhabitation of God in the Spirit. The Mennonites refer to the church leaders in slightly different terms as teachers, deacons and deaconesses, though they do make it clear further on that the latter term refers to widows. They refer to Jesus as the Bishop ( Article 9 (M)) and it is men who will do the teaching. There are of course many areas in which the two documents are in agreement. E. g. both refer to God as a trinity and as creator and that good works come out of faith rather than the other way round. In Article 5 (B) the Separatist states that there is ‘no original sin’ i. e. one is not a sinner by descent. This is in total contrast to Article 2 (M) of the Mennonite confession which states that because of the disobedience of Adam and Eve sin came into the world and has descended to all mankind, though both agree that man can be redeemed through Christ. The Mennonites are very concerned that faith is up to the individual, which explains their tolerance to the state and willingness to pay taxes etc. ( Article 13 (M)) Regarding communion, Menno left the Catholic church in part because of his lack of belief in the actual presence of Christ in the elements. The Mennonite document speaks rather of a holy supper,(Article 10 (M)), as commanded by Christ and in memory of what he had done. Smyth describes it on the other hand as ‘an external sign of the communion of Christ and of the faithful’ – Article 15 (B) and makes no mention of it being either a command or a memorial. Mennonites do not take oaths and quote scripture to back this up. They ask that others will understand and just take them at their word. Another area mentioned by the Mennonites and not by the Baptists is what they refer to as revenge, but which perhaps their fellow countrymen saw as justified war fare. The Mennonite statement in article 14 (M) explains their scriptural reasoning for this stand. Baptists would agree with them, but for some reason it is not mentioned. Many of the differences in these two documents are simply due to the type of authorship – one man as against a committee, the later being careful to check with each other before committing themselves to final wording, not omitting any point considered valid, hence the more complex language and greater length. Ye both groups would agree about many things – the need for faith and understanding before baptism, the greatness of God and the unique nature of Christ and his redeeming action. Both share a belief in the resurrection and in life eternal, even though they express this in slightly different ways, the Mennonites backing up their statements with scripture and the Baptists seemingly taking this as understood. These two groups came into being because of the Reformation and new ideas that were around at that time, especially with regard to the onus on an individual to come to faith, rather than being automatically part of the church, because he had been baptised as an infant, without either faith or understanding on his part. The biggest difference between the two seems to be with regard to man’s sinful nature and how he acquired it.. Baptists and Mennonites continue to worship and live according to their conscience. Not every Christian would agree with every word written in these confessions, but it is to be hoped, that like the writers and followers they would be tolerant in Christian love. Biblography Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History, Herald Press, Pennsylvania,1993 Electronic Sources Central European Protestantism, Mennonites found at http://philtar. ucsm. ac. uk/encyclopedia/christ/cep/menn. html retrieved 28th September 2007 Mennonites found at http://mb-soft. com/believe/text/mennonit. htm retrieved 28th September 2007. English Baptist Separatist Confessions found at The Reformed Reader http://www. reformedreader. org/ccc/esbc. htm retrieved 28th September 2007 How to cite Baptist Confessions, Papers

Evidence Based Nursing Research for Transitional Patient & Family

Question: Discuss about theEvidence Based Nursing Research for Transitional Patient Family. Answer: Introduction: Levett-Jones clinical reasoning is crucial in nursing field because it can be useful in identifying and prioritising nursing care issues. Levett-Jones clinical reasoning consist of different steps like considering patient, collecting information, processing information and identifying problems for prioritising nursing care. Millers Functional Consequences Theory is implemented in identifying these cares prioritise. Establishing goals, taking action, evaluating outcomes and reflecting on the case are the remaining steps in the Levett-Jones clinical reasoning which cab be useful in planning care and evaluating outcomes of the provided care. In this paper, case of the Amalie is discussed. Information related to Amalie is collected and processed based on the steps of Levett-Jones clinical reasoning cycle and nursing care prioritise are established. Suitable intervention plan implemented according to the identified nursing prioritise (Hunter, 2016; Levett-Jones, 2013). Cultural background and dignity of the Amalie are considered throughout the process of care. Consider the patient: Mrs Amalie Jones is 89 years old woman. She is staying alone in a single-story home because Henry, her husband passed away two years ago. Her son, Dominik is living in Germany and visits her on few occasions. Tracy, her daughter living in Australia and visits her frequently. Few of the family members of Henry live in Australia and meet her on regular basis. She was teacher by profession and also worked as fundraising activist for local Catholic Church. In last two years she was not participating in any activities because her health gets deteriorated. Macular degeneration, hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are her prominent health issues. Her diet gets reduced and she is losing weight. Collect information: Due to rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, she is exhibiting mobility problem. Hence, she stopped visiting her friends and members of German association. Her doctor mentioned that she is losing weight because she is not eating properly. After completion of assessment, GP stated symptoms like joint stiffness, swollen feet and enlarged joints, painful joints like knee, hip, figures and back and limited joint movement. Other than this, she is also exhibiting symptoms like constipation, occasional dizziness, vision deficit, non-significant weight loss and occasional non-adherence to medication consumption due to pain. She is being administered medicines like paracetamol, ibuprofen, thyroxine and hydroxychloroquine. Process information: Her symptoms like stiffness, swelling and pain in joints reflects her arthritic condition. Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis are the chronic conditions related to older age. As compared to the rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis is more degenerative in nature. In rheumatoid arthritis, there is occurrence of inflammation and autoimmunity is also one of the prominent causes of it. Osteoarthritis mainly occurs due to wear and tear of joints (Kourilovitch, Galarza-MaldonadoC and Ortiz-Prado, 2014). Degradation and loss of articular cartilage are mainly responsible for wear and tear in osteoarthritis patients. In rheumatoid arthritis, multiple joints get involved while in osteoarthritis joints like hands, fingers or knees get involved (Kung and Bykerk, 2014). As a result of occurrence of both the types of arthritis, Amalies all the joints get affected. Age also play important role in the occurrence of osteoarthritis because osteophytes are more common in older people. However, radiographic a ssessment cannot correlate osteophytes and severity of pain. Moreover, anatomical alterations in joints due age and degeneration of musculoskeletal system are responsible for the occurrence of osteoarthritis in Amalie (Abhishek and Doherty, 2013). As she is consuming less food, she is exhibiting constipation and occasional dizziness. Less consumption of food in Amalie might be due to rheumatoid arthritis because in patients with rheumatoid arthritis loss of appetite increases with the progression of disease. Macular degeneration in older people can lead to vision loss. Damage to the macula of retina can produce blurred or no vision. Macular degeneration can be of two types like dry and wet. Amalie developed dry macular degeneration which exists in approximately 90 % of the cases. (Mehta, 2015). She is having her medications regularly, however as a result of consistent pain, she become non-adherent to the medicine consumption. Identifying issues: Painful swelling occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis due to inflammation of the lining of joints. Bone erosion and joint deformity can occur due to inflammation of the lining of the joints. Wear and tear of the joints in osteoarthritis patients lead to pain. Amalie need to perform activities like pushing, pulling and twisting. During performing these activities, Amalie might feel pain. Repetitive stress on the joints during these activities can worsen joint pain and joint deformity. Pain can lead to loss of appetite, less consumption of food and fatigue in Amalie (Sarzi-Puttini et al., 2014). Pain is also responsible for the non-adherence to consumption of medication in Amalie. Stiffness of joints, inflammation of joints, pain in joints and degenerative joint disease can lead to impaired physical mobility in Amalie. Hence, both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are responsible for impaired mobility in Amalie. Body cannot be moved purposefully and unable to perform acti vities due to impaired physical mobility (Shin, Julian and Katz, 2013). Macular degeneration, age related ocular changes and rheumatoid arthritis are mainly responsible for the vision loss in Amalie. Moreover, dryness of eye can occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Lim et al., 2012). After collecting information, analysing it and processing the information nursing prioritise like, pain, impaired physical mobility and vision loss are selected for Amalie. Establish goals: Goals for pain: Amalie will exhibit improvement in the pain scale from 4 to 2 in two-month period. Amalie will exhibit improvement in mood and coping ability due to pain in two-month period. Goals set for impaired mobility are: Amalie will perform activities of daily living like bathing, clothing and cooking independently like other same age people in two-month period. Amalie will be able to acquire skills to use adaptive and supporting devices for walking and climbing the stairs within two-month period. Amalie will use protective devices for getting protection from the fall in two-month period. Goals for impaired vision: Amalie will be free of risk of fall due to impaired vision in two months period. Amalie will use call light and express requirement for help in two weeks period (Gulanick and Myers, 2016). Take action: Asses degree and severity of pain in Amalie, hence effective care plan can be prepared for Amalie. Provide both medical and occupational therapy for Amalie to reduce severity of the pain. Pain scale need to be used because these are the robust sources for distinguishing severity of pain. Assess Amalies physical and psychological response to pain and implement appropriate intervention for pain. It is evident that there can be emotional disturbance and mood alterations in patients with pain. Provide counselling through psychologist for the management of emotional disturbance and coping with the mood alterations (Walsh and McWilliams, 2014; Durham et al., 2015). Self-respect and dignity of Amalie can be improved by providing counselling. It is necessary to consider her cultural background before providing counselling to her. Assess Amalies capability to perform activities of daily living which can be helpful in providing suitable intervention for the improvement in the activities. Assessment can also be useful in identifying potential barriers. Provide with necessary supportive devices like wheelchairs, canes, transfer bars for Amalie for support and improvement in the activities. These supportive devices can enhance activity and reduce danger of fall in Amalie (da Silva et al., 2015). Demonstrate call light utilization to patient. Use call light for managing vision impairment in Amalie. Call light use can reduce risk of fall in Amalie (Elliott, McGwin, Kline and Owsley, 2015). Evaluate outcomes: There is improvement in pain scale in Amalie from 4 to 3 in the pain scale of 0 10. This improvement is achieved after providing intervention in the form of medicines and physiotherapy collectively. In the literature, it is evident that combined intervention in the form of medicine and physiotherapy can be more effective as compared to the individual intervention. Mood of the Amalie improved and there is augmentation of the coping ability of Amalie. Sensitivity of pain can be altered based on the individual because it is a subjective parameter. Hence, it is very necessary to improve mood and coping ability of Amalie (Sarzi-Puttini et al., 2014). There is improvement in the performance of activities of daily living in Amalie and she learned use of assistance devices. Due to use of assistance devices there is reduction in the fall frequency in Amalie. It is well established that fall frequency and risk injury is more in older people which can be efficiently controlled in older people by using assistance devices (Krist, Dimeo and Keil, 2013). Amalie acquired skills to use call light and she is practicing it efficiently. Hence, vision problem can be effectively avoided and she can call nurse for her assistance. Risk of fall and injury can be effectively reduced in older people by using call light (Dev, Paudel, Joshi et al., 2014). Reflection: I understand and realized that arthritic disease and vision impairment can negatively impact activities of daily living. Henceforth, it is mandatory to extend them assistance for carrying out their activities and provide them with appropriate assistance devices. I had extended information about arthritic disease, I would have realized influence of these disease on the daily activities. Provision of support and assistance for the people with arthritic diseases in the preliminary stage can reduce risk of fall and further complications can be avoided. I understood that pain can affect patient both physically and psychologically. I should have started psychological counselling in arthritic patients in older people (Carpenito, 2013). Conclusion: Levett-Jones clinical reasoning cycle and Millers Functional Consequences Theory are applied in case of Amalie for collecting information related to rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, macular degeneration and hypothyroidism. Three cares prioritise such as pain, impaired physical mobility and impaired vision are identified in Amalie by applying information collection and processing steps of the Levett-Jones clinical reasoning cycle. Goals of care were set for Amalie. For each of the set goals, actions were planed and executed for assessment and intervention of Amalie. Pain severity is reduced in Amalie and there is improvement in the mood and coping ability of Amalie. Amalies ability to perform activities of daily living improved and there is reduction in the fall frequency. Hence, from this case study, it is evident that implementation of Levett-Jones clinical reasoning cycle and Millers Functional Consequences Theory can be helpful in executing stepwise procedure for providing ho listic care to older patients like Amalie. This type of care can be considered as robust care for older people because all these steps are taken from the robust framework. References: Abhishek, A., and Doherty, M. (2013). Diagnosisand clinical presentation ofosteoarthritis. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 39(1), 45-66. Carpenito, L. J. (2013). Nursing Care Plans: Transitional Patient Family Centered Care. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. da Silva, M.B., Almeida, M. A., Panato, B.P., et al. (2015). Clinical applicability ofnursingoutcomes in the evolution of orthopedic patients withImpaired PhysicalMobility. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem, 23(1), 51-8. Dev, M.K., Paudel, N., Joshi, N.D., et al. (2014). Impact of visualimpairmentonvision-specific quality of life among older adults living innursinghome. Current Eye Research, 39(3), 232-8. Donato, A., et al. (2015). Pain management in patients withrheumatoid arthritis. Nurse Practitioner, 40(5), 38-45. Elliott, A.F., McGwin, G., Kline, L.B., and Owsley, C. Vision ImpairmentAmong Older Adults Residing in Subsidized Housing Communities. Gerontologist, 55(1), S108-17. Gulanick, M., and Myers, J.L. (2016). Nursing Care Plans - E-Book: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. Hunter, S. (Ed). (2016). Millers nursing for wellness in older adults (2 nd Australia and New Zealand ed.) North Ryde, NSW: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. Krist, L., Dimeo, F., and Keil, T. (2013). Can progressive resistance training twice a week improvemobility, muscle strength, and quality of life in very elderlynursing-home residents withimpairedmobility? A pilot study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 443-8. Kourilovitch, M., Galarza-Maldonado, C., and Ortiz-Prado, E. (2014). Diagnosisand classification ofrheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Autoimmunity, 48-49, 26-30. Kung, T.N., and Bykerk, V.P. (2014). Detecting the earliest signs ofrheumatoid arthritis:symptomsand examination. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 40(4), 669-83. Levett-Jones, T. (Ed.). (2013). Clinical reasoning: Learning to think like a nurse. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson. Lim, L.S., Mitchell, P., Seddon, J., et al. (2012). Age-relatedmacular degeneration. Lancet, 379(9827), 1728-38. Mehta, S. (2015). Age-RelatedMacular Degeneration. Primary Care, 42(3), 377-91 Sarzi-Puttini, P., Salaffi, F., Di Franco, M., et al. (2014). Painin rheumatoidarthritis: a critical review. Reumatismo, 66(1), 18-27. Shin, S.Y., Julian, L., and Katz, P. (2013). The relationship between cognitive function andphysicalfunction in rheumatoidarthritis. Journal of Rheumatology, 40(3), 236-43. Walsh, D.A., and McWilliams, D.F. (2014). Mechanisms, impact and managementofpaininrheumatoid arthritis. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 10(10), 581-92.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Competitive Strategy Economics of Strategy

Question: Discuss about theCompetitive Strategyfor Economics of Strategy. Answer: Strategy Meaning: Organizations devise a number of strategies in order to emerge as leaders in the market(Yarger, 2012). Strategies enable organizations to extend their core competencies for gaining competitive advantage in the market. Thus, strategies form the key drivers for business growth and development. The scope of the current report evaluates the pertinent discussion on strategy as provided in the video along with a case example of an organization that implements the same. Firstly, in the video the concept of strategy is defined by incorporating for various plans of actions or directions that managers undertake for achieving organizational goals(Burt, 2011). Strategy provides drive for the organization such that it is able to create some uniqueness which can be referred to as value and provides them to customers. Strategies help creating brand identity and brand value for the organization. Various organization might implement various types of strategy as in regards to expansi on, low costs, creating distinctive products, or global expansion, product innovation and so on(Besanko, 2009). Strategy was initially introduced for wars to win them and was proposed by generals, who were to add value and resources to create the final impact. Modern day complex challenges in business can be overcome by managers by implementing strategies. Thus, the scope of strategy is vast and can incorporate various types of measure for creating competitiveness for the organization. In the video an example for IKEA is given which is a Scandavian furniture manufacturer selling all over the world. The key strategic driver for the Company is to create quality furniture at relatively low costs which customers can easily purchase. IKEA is the first furniture dealer to set up retail stores in various parts of the world and due to its scale of operations it has a competitive advantage compared to other local furniture dealers(Czepiel, 2012). Due to the focus on low cost, the Company der ives immense value from it and is able to establish its competitive advantage world over. The complex interdependence process of IKEA is un-imitable by local competitors, as products are manufactured by use of mass production techniques and then packed in flat boxes and shipped in large volumes globally. The final assembly of the products needs to be done by final customers(Ferrell, 2012). Henry Mintberg, a well-respected business strategists distinguished between intended, realized and emergent strategies. An intended strategy might change on the way to do it, and emerge as a separate strategy altogether. Timing is an important factor in strategy, as plans within a strategy might be important but not executing the plan at correct timing might eventually lead to failure of the strategy(de Kluyver, 2010). For successful strategy there are four relevant questions that needs to be answered as; Where to compete? What unique value does the business bring? What are the key resource and capabilities that has to be utilized? How to sustain the value in business? Organization Application: The case example taken for the purpose of analysis for strategic application is Coles Supermarkets based in Australia. Coles was a small retail store provider but post being taken over by Wesfarmers it has grown by leaps and bounds(Cullen, 2009). Coles has expanded its stores and utilizing famers cooperative resources of Wesfarmers the Company has been able to integrate backwards. Coles is a low cost provider of fresh supplies and one of the most trusted brands according to customers. It sources all fresh supplies from farmers cooperative of Wesfarmers and caters to its customers at affordable rates that no other competing companies can supply. Coles have selected Australian markets for competing as it is based from Australia. Competing in home market allows develop of extensive knowledge regarding the area and its consumers. The Company has detailed understanding regarding the various demand levels of consumer which allows it to design and cater to unique c ustomer capabilities. The unique value that Coles offers its customers is the fresh supply of stocks along with other retail products at affordable rates(Casadesus-Masanell, 2010). The Company is capable of sourcing vegetables, fruits, meat and other supplies easily from its local suppliers which allows it to sell it to customers at affordable rates. Further the new app and website allows the customers to purchase products online and then it gets delivered at their home steps. The key resources and capabilities utilized for the purpose of conducting business of Coles is its parent Company of Wesfarmers and valuable supply chain management systems. Coles has a highly sophisticated and integrated supply chain which allows for the Company to cater to customers various products at each stores and on time. Thus, the resources and capabilities acts as the key driver for the Companys strategic growth and development. Due to such prevailing resources and capabilities Coles will be able to s ustain its key values in business and grow to explore other markets as well. As the environmental norms in Australia are very stringent, Coles can resort to catering of value by means of resorting to environmental friendly products at low costs. As there are a number of retail companies in Australia that are competing for providing low costs to their customers, the new initiative of environmentally compliant will provided Coles products a sustainable market for the future. References Lists Besanko, D. D. 2009. Economics of strategy. John Wiley Sons. Burt, G. 2011. Towards the integration of system modelling with scenario planning to support strategy: the case of the UK energy industry. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 62(5), 830-839. Casadesus-Masanell, R. . 2010. From strategy to business models and onto tactics. Long range planning, 195-215. Cullen, J. B. 2009. International business: strategy and the multinational company. Routledge. Czepiel, J. a. 2012. Competitor analysis. Venkatesh Shankar and Gregory S. Carpenter. Handbook of Marketing Strategy, Edward Elgar, 41-57. de Kluyver, C. 2010. Fundamentals of global strategy: a business model approach. Business Expert Press. Ferrell, O. C. 2012. Marketing strategy, text and cases. . Nelson Education. Yarger, H. 2012. Strategic theory for the 21st century: the little book on big strategy. Lulu. com.